Si busques perdre aquells quilos de més i depurar una mica l’organisme, hi ha diverses opcions. Com cada any, l’Institut Mèdic Europeu de l’Obesitat (IMEO) ha llançat un rànquing amb les millors dietes per perdre pes sense el temut efecte rebot. L’estudi de IMEO està realitzat per experts en salut: nutricionistes, bariátricos, endocrins, cirurgians, psicòlegs… i, entre altres dietes, recomanen la del dejuni intermitent. L’última moda dins d’aquesta parcel·la és el Dejuni Reset, que ajuda en la pèrdua de pes, però també millora la qualitat de vida. Tota dieta saludable, ha d’anar acompanyada de la pràctica esportiva (en aquest enllaç trobaràs l’exercici de moda per perdre pes).
Què és el dejuni intermitent?
És una dieta que està de moda i que té de promotores famoses com Elsa Pataky o Jennifer Anniston. Aquesta dieta consisteix a dividir el nostre dia en dos: un espai en el qual podem prendre aliments i un altre en el qual només prendrem líquids no calòrics. El dejuni intermitent, a més, pot ser d’ajuda per a pacients que pateixen alguna patologia com a diabetis o obesitat, ja que s’ha vist que pot millorar la sensibilitat a la insulina. A més presenta tots aquests beneficis: pèrdua de pes, augment de múscul i disminució de greix i/o la reducció del risc coronari.
En què consisteix dejuni «reset»?
És un tractament basat en el dejuni intermitent amb el qual es dividirà el teu dia en dos. En un dels espais temporals es poden prendre aliments i en l’altre es prenen líquids no calòrics. Hi ha tres modalitats: RESET 12, RESET 16 i RESET 24, tot això depenent els desitjos de pèrdua de pes i característiques del pacient.
Descripció de les tres modalitats:
RESET 12: divideix l’espai en 2, un de 12 hores en el qual es prenen aliments i un altre de 12 hores en el qual es prenen líquids no calòrics. Aquest dejuni és el més comú i és en el qual es recomana o bé esmorzar més tard o sopar més aviat.
RESET 16: divideix l’espai en 2, un de 16 hores en el qual es prenen líquids no calòrics, com a tes, cafès, brous…, i un altre de 8 hores en el qual s’ingereixen aliments. Per a seguir aquest dejuni el pacient haurà d’eliminar l’esmorzar o el sopar.
RESET 24: es tracta de no ingerir aliments en 24 hores. Dins d’aquesta fase existeix el que s’ha denominat el ‘Eat Stop Eat’, que consisteix a realitzar un o dos dejunis de 24h a la setmana, estant separats en el temps almenys 24h.
When temperatures drop, it is necessary to raise the organic defenses to face in the best possible conditions the attacks of respiratory diseases. And some foods can naturally help in these protective functions, according to some nutritionists.
“From the point of view of nutrition, nourishing consists of providing calories, lipids, proteins and other nutrients to the body to maintain proper functioning and health“, highlights Estefanía Ramo, nutritionist and food technologist at the European Medical Institute of the Obesity (Imeo).
He explains that in this way, “nutrient” is the component present in food, assimilated by the body and used to obtain energy, repair tissues and regulate metabolic processes.
“If in addition to providing the above benefits, the nutrient is capable of influencing the immune system, then it could be called ‘immunonutrient’”, this nutritionist tells Efe.
Next, Ramo and Rubén Bravo, dietician expert in nutrition and gastronomy at the IMEO, describe that “some foods accessible to the entire population contain numerous nutrients capable of positively influencing the immune system”, explaining how they benefit us and we can incorporate them into our diet habitual.
Salmon, the protection that comes from the sea
“This fish contains omega 3 fatty acids, which help to strengthen the immune system and also vitamins of group B (B2, B3, B6, B9, B12), which perform regulatory functions of the immune response of our body against possible external attacks of viruses and bacteria ”, Ramo and Bravo explain.
They point out that vitamin A has an important role in regulating the immune system, both innate or nonspecific (the organic defenses with which we are born) and acquired or secondary, that is, the immunity that develops when we are exposed to various substances called antigens , which provoke a defensive response from the body.
“This vitamin is involved in the immune reaction to antigens or ‘humoral response’, consisting of the formation of antibodies, substances that fight infections that threaten our body,” they say.
According to these experts, vitamin D is a powerful modulator of the immune system, interacts with most of the cells of said system and also improves innate immunity by intervening in the formation of macrophages, large immune blood cells, which “engulf ”And destroy pathogens or foreign substances.
“Salmon also contains iron, a mineral whose deficit in the body affects the correct function of organic defenses, mainly by depressing certain aspects and cellular functions, such as the secretion of immune proteins called cytokines”, they add.
They point out that iron deficiency has also been related to a greater sensitivity to substances capable of producing oxidative stress (a process that causes cellular damage), as well as to a higher incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases.
Ramo and Bravo recommend eating salmon “at dinner, grilled, baked, grilled accompanied by vegetables (green leafy, such as spinach) or in the form of a ‘tartar’ with avocado.”
Almonds, sweet allies of immunity
“Almonds are rich in minerals such as copper, which can contribute to the antimicrobial response of macrophages; and selenium, essential for a correct response, both in the innate and acquired immune systems ”, according to Ramo and Bravo.
They indicate that, in addition to iron, this nut contains zinc, a mineral that has a multitude of effects on many types of immune cells, and has a direct effect on the number and function of macrophages.
IMEO experts recommend incorporating them into the diet “as an ingredient in salads or as an alternative to mid-morning meals or a snack, being the best way to consume them raw or lightly toasted”.
Kefir, milk barrier against germs
This fermented milk rich in bacteria and probiotic yeasts, so called because they contain live microorganisms that provide benefits for the body, is rich in vitamins D and A, which promote immune activity through various mechanisms.
A specific probiotic strain of kefir, ‘Lactobacillus Kefiri’, helps the body defend itself against harmful bacteria such as’ salmonella ‘and’ E. Coli ‘. Photo: IMEO
Ramo and Bravo in particular highlight a probiotic strain that is specific to kefir and is called ‘Lactobacillus Kefiri’, which helps the body defend itself against harmful bacteria such as’ salmonella ‘and’ E. Coli ‘.
“This bacterial strain, along with others, helps modulate the immune system and inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria,” they highlight.
Kefir also contains another powerful compound found only in this probiotic drink, an insoluble polysaccharide called ‘kefiran’, which has been shown to have antimicrobial properties to, for example, fight infection due to the ‘candida’ fungus, according to these experts.
“The best way to include kefir in the weekly diet is in breakfast, ‘mid-morning’ meals and snacks, alone or with fruit,” they recommend.
Spinach, “green” force against infection
Spinach are green leafy vegetables, rich in copper, iron and zinc. They are great allies of our immune system, according to Imeo nutritionists, who advise eating them as a garnish at lunch and dinner, accompanying some lean meat or oily fish, raw or as a complement to salads, to make the most of their nutritional potential.
These experts emphasize that the popularly called “Popeye’s vegetable” contains “abundant nutrients, while providing few calories. It can be an alternative to salad lettuce and our recommendation is to include it regularly in a varied and healthy diet».
Broccoli is considered a “superfood”, since it has a high nutritional value and low calories, despite the fact that some reject it because of its strong smell, something normal in foods belonging to the cabbage family.
Rubén Bravo, dietitian expert in nutrition and gastronomy, from the European Medical Institute of Obesity, IMEO (www.imeoobesidad.com), explains that this cruciferous vegetable has a large amount of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and specific phytonutrients, highlighting vitamin A , of group B and C, and is also rich in selenium, calcium, potassium, carotenes, amino acids and fiber.
According to Bravo there is a notorious scientific evidence that allows to affirm that its consumption “helps reduce the probability of suffering colon cancer due to its high content of selenium”, although it could also be a therapeutic alternative when suffering from this cancer, since it has been demonstrated efficacy of some of its compounds in the elimination of cancer cells.
Also including broccoli on a regular basis in our diet “can help us in weight loss plans because of its high fiber and protein content, since it provides a lot of satiety and regulates blood sugar levels.”
“Broccoli also has an important antioxidant action, being an ally against premature aging, and helps prevent cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia”, Bravo highlights.
This vegetable contains a chemical substance that can help suppress the development of tumors, according to a team of researchers from the Harvard University School of Medicine, in the USA.
Experts at this university have linked a compound called I3C, which is found in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and other cruciferous vegetables, with the activity of one of the body’s most powerful tumor suppressor genes.
The study says that indole-3-carbinol or I3C is involved in a complex chemical chain reaction that helps rid a tumor suppressor gene of interference so it can do its job.
This work also highlights the “chemical warfare” that takes place within the body as it fights to prevent tumors from developing, even as diseased tissues themselves struggle to grow and spread throughout the body.
The research came from the laboratory of researcher Pier Paolo Pandolfi of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, BIDMC, in Boston, Massachusetts (USA) and the Cancer Research Institute (CRI), who is exploring the anti-cancer properties of crucifers, a family of vegetables, which in addition to broccoli, include Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kale.
Crucifers contain chemicals called glucosinolates, responsible for the pungent aroma and bitter taste of these vegetables, which, during meal preparation and, when chewing and digesting them, break down into other compounds such as isothiocyanates, thiocyanates and indoles, according to the National Cancer Institute, of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Indole-3-carbinol (an indole) and sulforaphane (an isothiocyanate) are frequently studied for their anticancer effects, and in studies with laboratory animals indoles and isothiocyanates have been found to inhibit cancer formation in various organs, among them: the bladder, breasts, colon, liver, lungs and stomach, according to the NIH.
Studies of these substances in humans have yielded more moderate results, finding some evidence that people who maintain a high consumption of cruciferous plants may have a lower risk of developing cancers of the prostate, colorectal (in women), lung and breast, according to this same source.
A sedentary lifestyle, video games and electronic devices, as well as junk food and sweets spread the obesity pandemic, which is ravaging global health, to children. Some simple measures, such as playing games that involve physical activity and leading by example, could help us keep our children from being overweight.
• Participation at the table. A good start is to create responsibility in the child for what she/he eats. The little one will love being a part of the list he makes to prepare the menu of the week.
• Balanced breakfast. Prioritize slow-absorbing foods, such as apple, fig, peach or plum, dairy, legumes and vegetables, eggs, fatty meats, and nuts. This is key to keeping him active at school.
• Always active. Walking the dog, helping with shopping, playing in the park or riding a bicycle are activities that gain sedentary lifestyle, but these must be complemented by sports discipline; Take advantage of the respective football and baseball seasons to encourage them to play frequently, and under your supervision or that of an adult.
• Permanent hydration. To complete the virtuous circle, it is key to keep the child hydrated, as well as getting them to sleep between 9 and 10 hours a day for cell repair.
• Food is not a judge. Never use food as a reward or punishment, because the child could associate sweets as good foods and fruits or vegetables as bad foods.
MENU FOR A CHILD
Nutritionist Andrea suggests the following menu for infants:
Five meals a day. Distributed in the main three (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and 2 secondary (mid-morning and snack).
Five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, including vegetables
Four daily servings of carbohydrates. Cereals, bread, pasta, rice, legumes or potatoes, taken at all meals except dinner.
Three daily servings of protein and dairy. Fish, eggs, meats and dairy, rich in calcium and vitamin D that participate in the formation of bone structures during growth.
Two daily servings of healthy fats. Nuts and olive oil.
A weekly ration. The consumption of pastries, sweets, soft drinks and chips (snacks), should be limited to one to two servings per week, due to its addictive power and high doses of sugar.
THE MEMORY OF THE PALATE “From 2 to 12 years old, children learn the eating habits that will influence them, consciously and unconsciously, the rest of their lives, establishing complex neural bridges that will make them deepen their tastes towards one or the other. foods that, from adolescence, will be more difficult to change ”.
The eating habits of world leaders have long been a matter of public interest, with observers questioning whether KFC and diet Coke, or perhaps something more balanced, could have an impact on politicians’ ability to deal with the physical and psychological stresses of their office.
Nutritionists from the European Medical Institute of Obesity (IMEO) in Madrid have carried out a study of the publicly-known details on the diets and exercise routines of world leaders including Russian President Vladimir Putin, US President Donald Trump, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez, with the politicians’ lifestyles offering some ‘do’ and ‘do not do’ tips for the rest of us, El Confidencial has reported.
In Putin’s case, the newspaper notes, the 67-year-old Russian president remains “in enviable physical form…thanks to regular intense physical exercise and a well-maintained diet.”
“Whenever his schedule allows, Vladimir Putin starts the day with swimming, a moment he uses for reflection. Then, he carries out strength and endurance training in his gym.” Based on publicly available information, the paper points to a standard presidential diet including lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, grains and eggs, with his culinary preferences said to include “soup of salmon or cod, beef with rice, roasted lamb, fish and red caviar.”
Crucially, El Confidencial notes, Putin avoids highly processed foods and alcohol, and if a toast is in order, he is said to prefer wine or beer. Turkish coffee, green and herbal teas are his hot drinks of choice, with the president said to prefer a light dinner that sometimes includes kefir – a fermented milk drink similar to a thin yogurt that’s very popular in Eastern Europe.
“Given his past as a secret service agent, Putin dominates in several martial arts,” the newspaper continues. “He has an eighth-degree black belt in judo and karate, and a ninth degree black belt in taekwondo. Sports he practices in winter include skiing and hockey.”
According to IMEO nutritional expert Andrea Marques, Putin’s diet and lifestyle are optimal for his age and physical state, and include a healthy, varied and balanced diet, a high protein breakfast and plenty of fruits and vegetables as a source of vitamins and minerals, nuts for unsaturated fats, as well as lean meats and fish rich in Omega 3. Marques notes that the lack of distilled alcohol means no empty calories.
President Donald Trump’s diet, by contrast, isn’t so great, El Confidencial notes, with the 73-year-old US president suffering from high cholesterol and a BMI of 30.4, which corresponds with mild obesity.
The newspaper suggests that Trump’s ardent public support of fast food is “controversial,” given that as many as 37 percent of Americans suffer from obesity, and that processed, calorie rich diets are linked to coronary and respiratory diseases, cancers, diabetes kidney problems, and other serious health issues.
Citing information about Trump’s diet which has been made available to US media, El Confidencial lists hamburgers, McDonald’s Egg McMuffins, chicken wings, fries, pizza, soft drinks and pastries as some of the mainstays of Trump’s diet. At the same time, the newspaper points out that Trump has given up virtually all of the sports of his youth, including baseball and football, apart from golf.
CAROLYN KASTERPresident Donald Trump welcomes the 2018 NCAA FCS College Football Champions, The North Dakota State Bison, to the State Dining room of the White House in Washington, Monday, March 4, 2019, with McDonald’s and Chick-fil-A fast food.
IMEO clinical nutritionist Carmen Escalada notes that “a large percentage of the calories consumed by the US president are empty calories, in other words, they do not provide any useful nutrients.”
Furthermore, while Trump’s lack of alcohol consumption is to his credit, his consumption of as many as 12 cans of diet cola and chocolate milkshakes is a problem. “The high intake of these types of drinks keeps us from drinking water, which is what our body really needs to function properly, and can lead to problems falling asleep, digestive issues or bone decalcification,” Escalada warns.
Turning to German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the newspaper points out that the 65-year-old chancellor is known for jealously guarding the details of her private life, including her culinary preferences and exercise regimen. Nevertheless, publicly available information can give some hints regarding her diet.
Although she is known to enjoy the occasional hike or cross-country skiing outing, Merkel is not believed to stick to a regular exercise regimen. At the same time, she enjoys traditional high-calorie German foods including sausages and mashed potatoes, cheese fondue and beer, although her dinners are thought to be rich in veggies.
On the whole, Andrea Marques suggests that it’s more difficult for Merkel to keep in shape than her male colleagues, since she is at an age where a typical woman’s metabolism’s muscle mass creating and fat burning capabilities decline due to hormonal changes associated with menopause and a drop in estrogen.
Finally, when it comes to President Pedro Sanchez of Spain, El Confidencial touts him as being “in very good shape at 48,” given his love for basketball and efforts to keep up a three-times-a-week exercise routine, which includes alternating between running, biking and weightlifting.
Sanchez’ adherence to a balanced Mediterranean diet including greens, salads, meats and grilled fish, as well as a hearty breakfast and plenty of water, and sparkling or red wine as opposed to harder liquors, is another credit in his favour.
“The fact that he limits his coffee intake to two cups a day, insists on eating little processed food and committing to sport at least three times a week is an advantage in favour of a good night’s rest,” IMEO nutritionist Ruben Bravo explained.
“For all these reasons, it’s not surprising that the Spanish president is an outspoken advocate of healthy, quality and local food. In fact, one of the main challenges for Spain’s legislature is to reduce the impact of junk food among the population through clear labeling requirements and threats to increase taxes on ultraprocessed foods and those with excess fats and sugars,” El Confidencial concludes.
Fachleute des Europäischen Medizinischen Instituts für Adipositas (IMEO) in Madrid haben kulinarische Vorlieben des russischen Staatschefs Wladimir Putin, des US-Präsidenten Donald Trump, der Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel und des spanischen Premierministers Pedro Sánchez verglichen, berichtet die Online-Zeitung „El Confidencial“.
Das IMEO sei dabei davon ausgegangen, dass das Essverhalten der Spitzenpolitiker als „der menschlichste Teil ihres Images“ die wirtschaftspolitischen Trends in Bezug auf Konsum und Ernährung, Übergewicht und Fettleibigkeit oder sogar auf die Vorstellung über die Lebenserwartung der Bevölkerung zeigen könne, hieß es im Beitrag.
Der Präsident der Russischen Föderation, also eines Landes, in dem laut der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) 25,7 Prozent der Bevölkerung die Adipositas (Fettleibigkeit) aufweisen und 11,1 Prozent eine sitzende Lebensweise pflegen, sei mit 67 Jahren in einer beneidenswerten Form, so die Experten vom IMEO. Dies sei auf eine intensive physische Trainingsbelastung und eine ausgewogene Ernährung zurückzuführen, so die Fachleute.
Wladimir Putins Standard-Diät umfasse mageres Fleisch, fettigen und fettfreien Fisch, Obst, Gemüse, Grützen und Eier. Der Präsident versuche, verarbeitete Produkte und Alkohol zu meiden, wenn aber ein Trinkspruch ausgesprochen werden müsse, so wähle er Wein oder Bier.
Sein Frühstück sei normalerweise reichlich – Eier-Omelett oder rohe Wachteleier, Früchte und Trockenobst, Buchweizenbrei mit Zusatz von Hirsekörnern und Altai-Honig. Dafür sei das Abendessen leicht – Milch- oder Sauermilchprodukte. Auch regelmäßige Sportaktivitäten – Schwimmen, Kampfsport, Skifahren und Eishockey – würden ihm helfen, in guter Form zu sein.
Der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten (die Adipositasrate in den USA liegt bei 37,3 Prozent) habe Probleme mit Cholesterin, sein Body-Mass-Index (30,4) entspreche einer milden Form von Adipositas, stellen die Fachleute fest. Donald Trump sei im Alter von 73 Jahren ein begeisterter Fast Food-Anhänger. Seine Ernährung basiere auf Hamburgern und Sandwiches mit Eiern und Käse, Speck und Saucen, gebratenen Hühnerflügeln mit Pommes Frites, Pizza, alkoholfreien Getränken und Gebäck.
Der Präsident trinke keinen Alkohol, aber er liebe Coca-Cola Light mit Koffein und Schokoladenshakes. In seiner Jugend habe er Baseball und Fußball gespielt, pflege aber jetzt einen sitzenden Lebensstil. All diese Faktoren würden das Risiko für eine Hypercholesterinämie und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen erhöhen, konstatieren Ernährungswissenschaftler.
Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel (die Fettleibigkeitsrate in Deutschland beträgt 25,7 Prozent), 65 Jahre alt, liebe Langlauf und Wandern, treibe aber nicht regelmäßig Sport, hieß es. Merkel sei der deutschen Küche treu – Würstchen mit Sauce und Kartoffelpüree, Käsefondue und Bier. Zum Abendessen bevorzuge sie aber Gemüse.
Der spanische Ministerpräsident mit einem (die Adipositasrate in Spanien liegt bei 27,1 Prozent) sei mit 48 Jahren in sehr guter Verfassung. Pedro Sánchez halte sich an eine ausgewogene mediterrane Ernährung und esse viel Gemüse, Salate, Fleisch und gegrillten Fisch. Er habe ein deftiges Frühstück, trinke viel Wasser und bevorzuge als Alkohol Sekt oder Rotwein. Sánchez treibe auch dreimal pro Woche Sport, dabei wechselten Krafttraining, Laufen und Radfahren einander ab.
For the seventh consecutive year, the European Medical Institute of Obesity (IMEO) launches its ranking with the worst and best slimming diets, clarifying, once again, that not everything that is in fashion is worth to achieve a healthy weight loss .
Endorsed by about twenty experts in obesity and health care (endocrine and bariatric surgeons, clinical and sports nutritionists, dietitians, psychologists, therapists and physical trainers), this classification draws on real cases, scientific studies, news and trends collected from in the media and social networks, as well as searches in Google Trends registered in Spain.
Once again, from the IMEO they advise avoiding «miracle diets» because of their negative effects on health. They also remember that healthy slimming methods are based on scientific evidence, propose a gradual weight loss, not exceeding 1.5Kg per week and 6Kg per month and use all food groups restricting only the amounts and are A great help when maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Aggressive and very restrictive, they promise to lose a lot of weight in a short time, but they are unsustainable in the long term . They lack scientific support and often turn to «miracle» products. With guaranteed rebound effect and side effects that compromise health. They are totally discouraged to achieve a healthy weight loss.
1. The vinegar diet
He went viral due to the death of a young British woman. Since the list of celebrities who support this method of losing weight is headed by names like Miranda Kerr or Victoria Beckham, we should not underestimate its influence and risks.
It is an aggressive diet that exploits a study conducted in Japan a decade ago that attributes the loss of body weight to the effect of vinegar acetic acid on lipid metabolism. «The results showed that with the daily intake of 30 ml of apple cider vinegar you could lose about 150 grams per week, an insignificant amount and far from those five kilos less in three days predicted by some followers of this practice,» he added. IMEO clinical nutritionist Carmen Escalada.
Actually, combining uncontrolled fasting with minimal intakes and vinegar daily can compromise our health and aggravate hidden or undetected diseases, such as diabetes, ulcer, gastritis or osteoporosis, among others.
The monodietas that propose a substantial and rapid reduction of weight achieve it in the short term with the drastic reduction of the caloric intake. From there, everything is inconvenient: risk of deficit of nutrients and energy, loss of water and muscle mass and a fearsome rebound effect that stalks us in the long term.
They are difficult to fit into a healthy lifestyle: they worsen our habits and generate anxiety, irritability and decay.
2. The ‘powder’ diet
Diets with Pronokal type supplements are booming due to their easy access and their seductive promise: lose up to 4 kilos in a week .
They usually offer, together with nutritional advice, a wide range of dietary products in the form of powders that are used to prepare soups, tortillas, pasta, chips, sauces, bars, milkshakes, cookies, chocolates and desserts, to which we must add multiple mineral and vitamin complexes.
They are excessively expensive products but they do not fulfill their purpose or goal. In the long term «the powder diet» is difficult to follow and has a strong rebound effect . In Spain, we could see it almost live with the change in the image of the television presenter Carlota Corredera who, after losing 60 kilos with this method, has begun to regain weight.
«Before, the usual protein supplements in these types of diets could be purchased only under the prescription of an endocrine or nutritionist; now they can be bought without a prescription in stores at street level and ‘online’,» says IMEO nutritionist Andrea Marqués.
Sometimes, people who want to lose weight desperately are not aware of the risks they hide. Taken without supervision can impoverish our diet and displace the consumption of quality fruits, vegetables and proteins.
In addition, protein supplements are not low caloric , so we must be careful to include them in our diet, even in a timely manner. They should never be used to perform ketogenic diets without medical or nutritionist supervision, as these can lead to health risks, such as liver and kidney poisoning, or vitamin and mineral deficits.
3. Keto diet
This diet followed by celebrities such as Kim Kardashian promises to lose up to 12 kg in a month and was one of the most sought after in Spain according to Google Triends data for last year.
It is based on ketosis , the transformation of accumulated fats into ketogenic bodies so that they can be used as fuel by our body. » When we limit the amount of carbohydrates to the maximum, our glycogen or energy reserve decreases , forcing the body to pull fat stores and thus lose weight,» explains Estefanía Ramo, nutritionist and dietitian at IMEO.
We are facing an unhealthy diet , the experts of the Institute emphasize, which promotes excessive consumption of fats and proteins that satisfy a lot, but cost more to be digested than carbohydrates .
That explains some of the symptoms of general malaise and adverse effects caused by ketosis: headache and dizziness in the absence of energy; bad breath and dry mouth; heavy sweating; lack of appetite; nausea or even vomiting; abdominal pain; difficulty breathing; decay; loss of calcium and risk of osteoporosis; increased cortisol in the blood (whose excess can lead to feelings of stress and anxiety).
Those who, despite everything, are determined to make this diet, should follow a rigorous process when it comes to progressively reinstating carbohydrates in their menu after the end of the regimen to avoid the expected rebound effect. This process usually lasts from two weeks to several months, depending on the weight that has been lost.
4. The diet of the ‘influencer’ without qualification
It is a phenomenon that moves millions and sweeps platforms like Instagram, Facebook or YouTube: the ‘influencers’ of food and healthy lifestyle.
Without having the corresponding credentials , they embark on the world of nutrition and sport, transferring advice that they themselves do not practice without a camera in front and encouraging the follower to consume natural products or slimming that, in many cases, are not as healthy or whose benefits are not demonstrable, constituting a double-edged sword for professionals who also work on these platforms.
«We often have to demystify bulls about aggressive methods to lose five kilos in two weeks, » says IMEO clinical and sports nutritionist Sonia Peinado. There is no «miraculous formula» when it comes to losing weight .
If we allow ourselves to be guided at a distance by the success of others without professional follow-up, we will most likely not reach the goal, end up more overweight than the initial one, develop a nutritional deficit or an eating disorder, thus compromising. our state of health due to ignorance.
To avoid falling into the networks of the amateur ‘influencer’, the expert advises to make sure that he has a collegiate number, that at least the first consultations are carried out in person, that the diet is personalized and that, after all, not It concerns the sale of slimming products that have not passed the corresponding sanitary controls.
5. Paleo diet
It is the favorite of elite athletes , such as footballers Marcos Llorente and Rafa Usín, which allows you to lose three kilos of fat in 10 days .
As the name implies, it is a food plan similar to that of the Palaeolithic caveman where the consumption of lean meats, fish, eggs, organic dairy, fruits, vegetables, nuts or seeds is prioritized and the grain (wheat, rice, corn, oats).
The followers of the paleo diet argue that the human body is genetically incompatible with the current diet that includes processed foods rich in sugars, fats and salt that makes people more susceptible to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension or inflammation of the colon.
» With a professional follow-up, this diet could work for athletes or people looking to improve their physical and muscular performance, » says IMEO Immaculate Luengo clinical and sports nutritionist.
The high content of fruits and vegetables ensures adequate levels of potassium, good blood pressure and proper function of the kidneys and muscle. It is a diet suitable for celiacs and prevents constipation, due to its fiber intake. A maximum of three intakes are made per day, with periods of intermittent fasting that allows our digestive and immune system to rest.
Regarding the drawbacks, a study conducted by Australian scientists recently revealed that the paleo diet can have an adverse effect on heart health, in addition to leading to other long-term chronic diseases , because it excludes grain carbohydrates from the menu whole, which can reduce the number of beneficial bacteria in the stomach.
Being a diet with excess protein, you can double the recommended amount of saturated fat, increase «bad» cholesterol levels and affect the functioning of the liver or kidney. It can lead to calcium deficiency, vitamins D and B. It is more expensive and difficult to vary in terms of food, which often leads to its early abandonment.
Sustainable over time and with no rebound effect, they contribute to a healthy lifestyle. They propose a moderate weight loss: up to 1.5 kg per week and no more than 6 kg per month.
They consist of all food groups taking into account their distribution, bioavailability and quantities to ensure the proper functioning of our body. Normally monitored by endocrines, nutritionists or dietitians.
1. Evolution method
According to Rubén Bravo, nutrition expert and spokesperson for IMEO, «it is a multidisciplinary commitment in the short, medium and long term that incorporates not only nutritional and physical activity guidelines, but also nutritional supplements and coaching techniques, personal growth and mindfulness as tools of help to achieve health goals and reinforce motivation. «
It allows you to lose 5 kilos of fat in a month in a healthy way and is advised to people who seek to combine an active lifestyle with improvement in physical condition.
The food plan is aimed at promoting the use of fat as a source of energy through intelligent nutrition backed by scientific evidence. This involves taking foods of low and medium glycemic index to stabilize blood sugar levels and promote vitality and avoid feeling hungry; adequate amounts of high bioavailability proteins that feed the muscle; healthy fats that favor the hormonal system; High nutritional density foods to rule out micronutrient deficiencies or malnutrition.
If we follow a diet unbalanced and low in protein, we will lose weight, but the kilos we lose will be partly of muscle mass, causing our body to slow down and spend fewer calories at rest . «When we finish the diet and return to normal eating, our body, which now spends much less calories because it has less muscle mass, will begin to store excess energy in the form of fat and we will experience the dreaded rebound effect, getting fat again,» explains Bravo .
The method proposes three different phases to accustom and adapt our metabolism to all food groups : a first one of metabolic activation and initiation in physical activity; the second , designed to set new healthy habits; and a third phase fit . «It is the final stretch to define muscle tone, minimize body fat, work to combat premature aging, anxiety and sleep problems, train memory and increase defenses, reinforcing motivation and positive thinking with techniques mindfulness, and the consolidation in the healthy, active and preventive lifestyle «, concludes the expert.
Actress Paz Vega, a lover confesses to healthy, fresh and organic food, would fit into this social movement that has more than two million followers on the networks.
The method, baptized as «realfooding» by nutritionist Carlos Ríos , appeals to remove ultraprocessed products and the addictive effect they may have from the menu, moving us to a natural and healthy diet . Therefore, we are not faced with a diet, but with a proposal of healthy guidelines that can help us lose between 0.5 and 1 kilo a week.
Those who follow this approach divide food into three large groups based on their nature, nutritional quality or the presence of processed ingredients and additives.
The first group includes fruits, vegetables, vegetables, legumes, fish, shellfish and eggs that would be the basis of daily food .
The second is made up of healthy processed foods, including UHT milk, extra virgin olive oil, canned fish or 100% whole wheat bread.
The third group refers to ultraprocesses, such as soft drinks, sugary dairy products, salty snacks or pastries, which may be harmful to health, due to the high concentrations of sugars, salt or saturated fats that have been incorporated to increase palatability, Duration or attractiveness.
«Following this method can help us to be healthy, but it does not have to become an obsession to the point of resorting to applications to scan the food and every bite we take,» says Carmen Escalada, clinical nutritionist at IMEO.
Do not forget that, even when eating healthy, we can gain weight, if the amount of some healthy foods , but very caloric, such as avocado, olive oil or nuts is exceeded .
If we want to lose weight, it would be necessary to adjust the intake according to our constitution and the physical exercise performed.
3. Volumetric diet
Actress Angelina Jolie is one of the celebrities who has passed to this type of diet that uses foods with a lot of volume, but low in calories and with a greater satiating power . In this way and with a daily menu that would be around 1,500 calories, you could lose between 0.5 and 1 kilo a week, ensuring a gradual decrease.
The great advantage of this diet is its ability to calm the appetite and cover the daily nutritional requirements . To do this, it uses the flavor, texture, preparation and combination of certain foods that increase the feeling of satiety and encourage weight loss.
It has almost no rebound effect , since very few food groups are excluded during the diet and, in general, it is easy to follow.
«Here they usually serve first or before the main meal dishes that decrease appetite, such as the salad of wide-leaf vegetables or the defatted broth ,» explains IMEO nutritionist Estefanía Ramo.
More aqueous and cooked foods are prioritized , such as infusions, cooked cereals, fruits, vegetables, soups and stews that allow you to eat more volume than others and increase satiety . The intake of raw vegetables rich in complex carbohydrates guarantees a constant supply of glucose and energy, while the fruits would provide us with vitamins and fructose that is assimilated more slowly than glucose and, therefore, does not cause sugar drops.
High-calorie foods , such as mayonnaise, cream, butters, sausages, fried foods, fatty meats and whole dairy, are replaced by others, with a low or moderate caloric intake, such as skimmed dairy, skinless chicken, lean cuts of meat ( cold defatted meat, lean ham), light dressings and vegetable dew.
Rapidly absorbed carbohydrates , such as pasta, refined cereals and their derivatives (white bread, pasta and white rice) should be ingested in moderation, because they favor the increase in body fat deposits , in addition to giving less feeling of satiety and sharply raise blood sugar. Slowly absorbed carbohydrates obtained from fresh and dried fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seeds and legumes are preferable .
Hydration is essential , as it is recommended to drink two glasses of water as soon as you get up and reach three liters at the end of the day , being able to opt for fruit juices or smoothies. Alcohol is discouraged, for providing «empty calories» and increase the feeling of hunger. Sweetened and carbonated drinks are prohibited, as they fill and do not satisfy.
4. Vegan diet
Natalie Portman and Brad Pitt are some of the celebrities who recognize following this type of diet based on the exclusion of all types of meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, dairy products and all their derivatives.
«The vegan diet has always raised controversy over the possible associated deficits, but if it is well planned and balanced with high quality foods it can be beneficial , reduce cardiovascular risk, balance cholesterol levels and improve intestinal microbiota, due to the consumption of fiber of plant origin, «explains Sonia Peinado, nutritionist at IMEO. It allows you to lose between one and two kilos a week, if vegetable oil is restricted.
In order to avoid nutritional deficiencies, it should be supervised by qualified health personnel , when in fact it is estimated that only ten percent of vegans go to consultation.
The nutrients that are critical in a vegan diet, either because they have lower availability or due to their difficult absorption, are Vitamin B12, iron, zinc, iodine, proteins and omega 3 fatty acid .
Its deficit can lead to major diseases, such as megaloblastic anemia and cardiovascular disease, and interfere with the correct development of the nervous system or in the growth stages.
In this sense, the key to success lies in a professional follow-up carried out by qualified health personnel, which guarantees adequate supplementation based on preparations of plant origin and minimizes the consumption of croquettes, nuggets or sausages suitable for vegans, which do not allow ultra-processed products .
5. Intermittent fasting diet
Intermittent fasting is one of the current high-rise diets that allows you to lose between one and two kilos a week. It is practiced by many celebrities, including Ben Affleck and Elsa Pataky .
It consists of introducing periods of fasting into a balanced diet that can last 12, 16 or more hours a day without exceeding 48 hours in a row . «Because they are so long, these last periods must be supervised by professionals,» advises IMEO nutritionist Andrea Marqués.
This approach is to make a balanced diet with fasting days in between so that our metabolism optimizes the energy consumption stored in the form of fat .
Physiologically, blood glucose levels during fasting decrease and fewer calories are ingested, which helps to lose weight.
When practiced at night, fasting helps our intestinal microbiota stay healthier , favoring the positive flora and keeping the negative at bay.
«However, if we practice intermittent fasting, it is very important to have an adequate nutrient intake throughout the day so as not to lose muscle mass or expose our health to risk with a rebound effect in the short and medium term, » warns Marquis.
This type of fasting can be beneficial in healthy people, those with controlled type 2 diabetes or those who practice a moderate sport. Patients with associated pathologies or eating disorders are not advised without the recommendation and supervision of a doctor or nutritionist .
Les dietes ‘Realfooding’, volumètrica, vegana, el ‘mètode evolution’ o el dejuni intermitent són les més recomanades per l’Institut Mèdic Europeu de l’Obesitat (IMEO), en la setena edició del seu rànquing ‘TOP5 de les millors i pitjors dietes per perdre pes en 2020 ‘, per aprimar ja que, a més de contribuir a portar un estil de vida saludable, ajuden a perdre entre 1,5 quilos a la setmana i no més de 6 quilos al mes.
Aquestes llistes estan recolzades per metges endocrins i cirurgians bariàtrics, nutricionistes clínics i esportius, dietistes, psicòlegs, terapeutes i entrenadors físics. «Aquest any ens hem vist desbordats per les tendències en dietètica que emergeixen i trenquen amb força a les xarxes socials i l’enorme popularitat entre els seus seguidors explica l’elecció de la gran majoria de les dietes que componen aquesta setena edició del nostre rànquing», ha dit el portaveu i expert en nutrició de l’IMEO, Rubén Bravo.
Així, en el lloc número u de la dieta més indicada per aprimar es troba el ‘mètode evolution’, un pla d’alimentació que permet perdre 5 quilos de greix al mes i que està orientat a afavorir l’ús de greix com a font d’energia, a través de la presa d’aliments de baix i mig índex glucèmic per estabilitzar els nivells de sucre en sang, propiciar vitalitat i evitar sensació de gana; de quantitats adequades de proteïnes d’alta biodisponibilitat que alimenten el múscul; greixos saludables que afavoreixen el sistema hormonal; i aliments d’alta densitat nutricional per descartar mancances de micronutrients i desnutrició.
Una altra de les més recomanades és la ‘Realfooding‘, seguida per l’actriu Paz Vega, apel·la a suprimir al màxim els productes ultraprocesados i l’efecte addictiu que pugui tenir, passant-se a una alimentació natural i saludable. Amb aquesta dieta es pot perdre entre 0,5 i un quilo a la setmana, i els seus seguidors divideixen els aliments en tres grups en funció de la seva naturalesa, qualitat nutricional o la presència d’ingredients processats i additius.
El primer està compost per fruites, verdures, hortalissa, llegums, peix, marisc i ous; el segon per llet UHT, oli d’oliva verge extra, peixos enllaunats o pa cent per cent integral; i el tercer grup per refrescs, lactis ensucrats, snack salats o pastisseria.
En el tercer lloc del rànquing de l’IMEO se situa la ‘dieta volumètrica’, seguida per l’actriu Angelina Jolie, que permet també perdre entre 0,5 i 1 quilo a la setmana. L’avantatge d’aquesta dieta és la seva capacitat de calmar la gana i cobrir els requeriments nutricionals diaris, per a això recorre al sabor, textura, forma de preparació i combinació de determinats aliments que augmenten la sensació de sacietat i incentiven la reducció de pes.
En concret, en aquesta dieta es prioritzen els aliments i cuinats més aquosos com les infusions, els cereals cuits, fruites, hortalisses, sopes i guisats; se substitueixen els aliments amb alta densitat calòrica (maionesa, crema embotits o lactis sencers) per lactis desnatats, pollastre sense pell, carn magra, guarniments light i rosada vegetal; i s’evita el consum d’hidrats de carboni d’absorció ràpida com patates o cereals refinats i els seus derivats (pa blanc, pastes i arròs blanc). A més, recomana beure dos gots d’aigua res més aixecar-se i arribar als tres litres al dia, podent optar per sucs de fruites o batuts.
Brad Pitt o Natalie Portman són alguns dels famosos que segueixen la ‘dieta vegana’, la qual ocupa el lloc quatre de la llista de l’IMEO, ja que permet perdre entre 1 i 2 quilos a la setmana. Es tracta d’una dieta basada en l’exclusió de tot tipus de carns, mariscs, ous i tots els seus derivats. No obstant això, la clau de l’èxit resideix en un seguiment professional realitzat per sanitaris qualificats, on s’assegura una suplementació adequada basada en preparats d’origen vegetal.
Finalment, l’IMEO ha aconsellat la ‘dieta del dejuni intermitent’, la qual compta amb seguidors com els actors Ben Affleck i Elsa Pataky i que consisteix a introduir períodes de dejuni dins d’una alimentació equilibrada que poden durar 12, 16 o més hores al dia, sense superar mai les 48 hores seguides. L’objectiu d’aquesta dieta, que permet perdre entre 1 i 2 quilos a la setmana, és que el metabolisme optimitzi el consum d’energia emmagatzemada en forma de greix.
«Ara bé, si es practica dejunis intermitents, és molt important tenir una ingesta de nutrients adequada al llarg del dia per no perdre massa muscular o exposar a risc la nostra salut amb un efecte rebot a curt i mig termini», han avisat des d’IMEO.
TOP 5 DE LES DIETES MENYS INDICADES PER 2020
D’altra banda, l’organisme ha publicat un rànquing amb les cinc dietes menys indicades perquè són agressives, molt restrictives i prometen perdre molt de pes en poc temps, i per tant «insostenibles» a llarg termini. A més, segons l’IMEO, no tenen suport científic i solen recórrer a productes ‘miracle’, garantint així el «efecte rebot» i efectes secundaris que poden comprometre la salut.
Entre elles encapçala la llista la ‘dieta del vinagre’, la qual, encara que la segueixen personatges públics com Miranda Kerr o Victoria Beckham, se centra en la ingesta exclusiva d’un sol producte durant diversos dies i que explota com a fonament un estudi realitzat al Japó que atribueix la pèrdua de pes corporal a l’afecte de l’àcid acètic del vinagre sobre el metabolisme dels lípids. «Combinar dejunis descontrolats amb ingestes mínimes i vinagre diàriament pot comprometre la nostra salut i agreujar malalties ocultes o sense detectar com, per exemple, diabetis, úlcera, gastritis o osteoporosi», han avisat des de l’IMEO.
La ‘dieta del ‘polvito» ocupa el segon lloc en aquesta llista, ja que promet perdre fins a 4 quilos de pes a la setmana gràcies al consum de productes dietètics en forma de pols que són «excessivament cars» i l’administració dels quals és «difícil de seguir» i té un» fort efecte rebot». En aquest punt, l’organisme ha recordat que la presentadora Carlota Corredera va aconseguir perdre 60 quilos amb aquest mètode i ja ha començat a recuperar el pes.
La tercera dieta menys recomanada per perdre pes és la ‘Keto’ que, seguida per famoses com Kim Kardashian, promet baixar fins a 12 quilos en un mes, i es basa en la cetosi, la transformació dels greixos acumulats en cossos cetogènics perquè puguin ser usats com a combustible pel nostre organisme. «Estem davant d’una dieta poc saludable que promou el consum excessiu de greixos i proteïnes que sadollen molt però que costen més de ser digerits pels hidrats de carboni, el que provoca alguns símptomes com malestar general, olor de cap, sudoració forta, nàusees o vòmits , dolor abdominal, dificultat per respirar o decaïment», han advertit des de l’IMEO.
La ‘dieta de l’influencer sense titulació’ és una altra de les rebutjades pels experts. I és que, «sense tenir les credencials corresponents, els ‘influencers’ traslladen consells que ells mateixos» no practiquen sense una càmera davant», incitant al consum de productes naturals o per aprimar que «no són tan saludables» o els beneficis dels quals «no són demostrables».
Finalment, el cinquè lloc de la llista l’ocupa la ‘dieta paleo’, la qual permet perdre tres quilos de greix en 10 dies i es basa en un pla d’alimentació similar al del cavernícola delpaleolític on es prioritza el consum de carns magres, peixos, ous, lactis orgànics, fruites, vegetals, fruits secs i llavors, i s’exclou el gra. «En ser una dieta amb excés de proteïnes, pot doblar la quantitat recomanada de greixos saturats, augmentar els nivells de colesterol ‘dolent’ i afectar el funcionament del fetge o ronyó. Pot comportar dèficit de calci, vitamines B i D», han tancat des de l’IMEO.
Эксперты предупреждают, что за 10 праздничных дней вы рискуете набрать в среднем от 3-х до 5-ти кило лишнего веса. Как не ощутить неприятные последствия праздников в виде вновь вылезшего животика, от которого вы так долго и усердно избавлялись, узнайте ниже.
Почему вы так рекордно легко набираете лишний вес за праздники? Вы даже не представляли, что всего 1 ужин в эти дни может обеспечить поступление в организм от 2000 до 2500 килокалорий. Что эквивалентно 2-м дням нормального питания при условии соблюдения диеты.
Таким образом, идеальный вариант – когда 1 прием пищи не превышает 30% суточного потребления калорий, то есть от 450 до 750 килокалорий, в зависимости от пола, веса, возраста и физической активности человека.
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a safe and feasible treatment for obesity. This study is focused on our technique modification which suggests a different suturing pattern in order to distribute suture tension more evenly.
A retrospective study of 148 patients (121 women) who underwent this procedure and were monitored for 12 months was conducted. The average age was 41.53 ± 10 years. The average BMI was 35.11 ± 5.5 kg/m2 with the average initial weight being 98.7 ± 17 kg. A subgroup of the first 72 patients (60 women) were monitored for 18 months. A new running «Z» stitch pattern was used to provide gastric cavity reduction by means of 4 parallel suture rows. The stitch pattern was intended to provide a homogenous distribution of the disruptive force on the suture among all stitch points.
%TWL was 17.53 ± 7.57 in 12 months and 18.5 ± 9% in 18 months indicating durability of the procedure. Patients with a BMI < 35 benefited most from an endoscopic gastroplasty. Leptin did not predict a response to endoscopic gastroplasty and decreased in all patients. In just one case there was a mild bleeding (0.67%) at the insertion point of the helix, which was resolved by sclerotherapy.
Endoscopic gastroplasty offers a real choice for obese patients. This single-center experience with a modified suturing pattern provides a successful technique for weight loss.
Gastroplasty; Leptin; Overstitch; Sutures; Z pattern